|Outcome||Lidocaine||Placebo||Difference (95% CI)|
|*CI defined in glossary.|
|†100 mm scale, where 0 = no discomfort and 100 = severe discomfort.|
|‡5 point Likert scale, where 1 = minimal difficulty and 5 = extreme difficulty.|
|Patient discomfort (mean visual analogue scale score in mm)†||37.7||59.3||21.6 (5.3 to 38.0)|
|Nurses’ perceived difficulty of tube insertion (median score)‡||2||2||0 (−1 to 1)|
|Nasal bleeding||17%||0||17% (3.5 to 31)|
|Vomiting||10%||0||10% (−0.7 to 21)|
|Chest tightness and dyspnoea||3.4%||0||3.4% (−3.2 to 10)|
|Inability to pass tube||6.9%||9.5%||−2.6% (−18 to 13)|
Nebulised lidocaine before nasogastric tube insertion reduced patient discomfort but increased risk of nasal bleeding
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