Evid Based Nurs 6:84 doi:10.1136/ebn.6.3.84
  • Treatment

Review: oral or parenteral opioids alleviate dyspnoea

Oral or parenteral and nebulised opioids v placebo for subjective assessment of dyspnoea*

Trial in meta-analysis Number of trials Standardised mean difference (95% CI)
*All trials were crossover trials. Follow up not reported. CI defined in glossary. A random effects model was used.
†Not significant.
All trials 12 −0.31 (−0.50 to −0.13)
Oral or parenteral opioids 9 −0.40 (−0.63 to −0.17)
Nebulised opioids 3 −0.11 (−0.32 to 0.10)†

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