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QUESTION: In children with urinary tract infection (UTI), is a long course (LC) of antibiotic treatment more effective than a short course (SC) for preventing treatment failure or reinfection?
Studies were identified by searching Medline and the Cochrane Library (all up to April 2001), reviewing bibliographies of relevant articles, and contacting experts in the field for any other published or unpublished studies.
Studies published in English were selected if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SC with LC outpatient antibiotic treatment for acute UTI in children 0–18 years of age. Studies that were restricted to children with recurrent UTI or that included children with asymptomatic bacteriuria were excluded from the review.
2 reviewers independently extracted data on setting, sample size, study quality, patient demographics, details of the intervention, definition of UTI, attempt to distinguish lower from upper UTI, and outcomes. Main outcomes included treatment failure (persistent infection or …
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