Evid Based Nurs 5:86 doi:10.1136/ebn.5.3.86
  • Treatment

Review: music as a single session intervention reduces anxiety and respiratory rate in patients admitted to hospital

 QUESTION: In adult patients admitted to hospital, does listening to music reduce the perception and physiological consequences of pain and anxiety, minimise the effect of unpleasant procedures and situations, and increase satisfaction with care?

Data sources

Studies were identified by searching Medline, CINAHL, Current Contents, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Cochrane Library, Dissertation Abstracts, PsycLit, Proceeds, HealthStar, Austhealth, and Expanded Academic Index; handsearching 4 journals that focus on music and health care; and reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles.

Study selection

Studies were selected if they were randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of recorded music compared with a control intervention in adult patients in a hospital setting. At least 1 of the following outcomes had to be reported: anxiety, pain, satisfaction, vital signs, analgesic use, sedation use, tolerance, mood, or length of stay. Studies with poor methodologies were excluded.

Data extraction

Data were extracted in duplicate on patient characteristics, type of music, and outcome measures.

Main results

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