|Outcomes||Time of assessment||Music||No music||Mean difference (95% CI)|
|*Mean difference and CI calculated from data in article.|
|Heart rate (beats/min)||Before surgery||74||81||7 (1.6 to 12.4)|
|During surgery||70||82||12 (7.2 to 16.8)|
|After surgery||68||78||10 (5.3 to 14.7)|
|Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)||Before surgery||132||152||20 (13.3 to 26.7)|
|During surgery||128||156||28 (21.5 to 34.5)|
|After surgery||123||141||18 (10.1 to 25.9)|
|Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)||Before surgery||85||90||5 (1.7 to 8.3)|
|During surgery||82||91||9 (6.1 to 11.9)|
|After surgery||68||75||7 (4.4 to 9.6)|
Listening to music during ambulatory ophthalmic surgery reduced blood pressure, heart rate, and perceived stress
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