Combined permethrin (PER) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was better than PER alone but not better than TMP/SMX alone for treating head lice infestation in children
QUESTION: Is combined permethrin (PER) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) better than either PER or TMP/SMX alone for treating head lice infestation (HLI)?
Randomised (unclear allocation concealment), blinded (unclear), controlled trial with 4 weeks of follow up.
3 private paediatric and family practices in San Joaquin County, California, USA.
115 children who were 2–13 years of age (70% girls) and had HLI (confirmed by inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice and nymphal stage or eggs). Children with hypersensitivity to TMP/SMX or 1% PER, or a history of parental non-compliance or neglect were excluded. 97% of children completed follow up.
For all groups, parents were instructed to wash the child's hair with regular shampoo, rinse with water, and then comb thoroughly using a LiceMeister or fine toothed comb. 39 children were allocated to 1% PER creme rinse, which was …