Evid Based Nurs 4:55 doi:10.1136/ebn.4.2.55
  • Assessment

A clear urine specimen on visual inspection cannot totally exclude a diagnosis of urinary tract infection

Test characteristics of visual inspection of urine specimen clarity (clear) for exclusion of a diagnosis of urinary tract infection*

Method of specimen collection Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (CI) +LR −LR
*LR = likelihood ratio. Diagnostic terms defined in glossary.
All specimens 90% (73 to 98) 82% (76 to 89) 5.07 0.13
Catheterised specimens 83% (52 to 98) 86% (75 to 94) 6.04 0.19
Midstream specimens 94% (71 to 100) 79% (68 to 88) 4.52 0.07

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