Evid Based Nurs 4:26 doi:10.1136/ebn.4.1.26
  • Causation

Urge urinary incontinence was associated with increased risk of falls and non-spinal, non-traumatic fractures in older women

 QUESTION: In community dwelling older white women, does weekly or more frequent urge and stress urinary incontinence increase risk of falls and non-spinal, non-traumatic fractures?


Cohort study with mean follow up of 3 years (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures [SOF]).


4 clinical care centres in Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon, and Pennsylvania, USA.


6049 community dwelling, ambulatory, white women who were ≥65 years of age (mean age 79 y), attended 5 SOF clinic or home visits, completed a physical examination and self administered questionnaire, provided data on urinary incontinence, and returned ≥1 postcard reporting falls after visit 5. Institutionalised women were excluded.

Assessment of risk factors

Live births; hysterectomy status; smoking status; alcohol use; walking; total weekly excursions outside of the home; medical history including hip or knee replacement, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, or arthritis; self reported joint pain; falls within the …

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