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Evid Based Nurs 4:25 doi:10.1136/ebn.4.1.25
  • Causation

3 combinations of modifiable lifestyle behaviours reduced the risk of coronary artery disease

Multivariate adjusted relative risks (RRs) for coronary artery disease (CAD) and CAD or stroke in women at 14 years of follow up*

Combination of low risk factors RR (95% CI) for CAD RR (CI) for CAD or stroke
*Adjusted for age, time period, parental history of myocardial infarction, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, hypertension, and cholesterol concentrations. †Also adjusted for body mass index and alcohol use. ‡Also adjusted for alcohol use.
Diet, smoking, and exercise† 0.43 (0.33 to 0.55) 0.46 (0.37 to 0.55)
Diet, smoking, exercise, and body mass index‡ 0.34 (0.23 to 0.52) 0.38 (0.28 to 0.51)
Diet, smoking, exercise, body mass index, and alcohol use 0.17 (0.07 to 0.41) 0.25 (0.14 to 0.44)

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