Evid Based Nurs 4:25 doi:10.1136/ebn.4.1.25
  • Causation

3 combinations of modifiable lifestyle behaviours reduced the risk of coronary artery disease

 QUESTION: Which combinations of lifestyle behaviours are associated with the reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD)?


Population based cohort study of women in the Nurses' Health Study with 14 years of follow up.




84 129 women who were 34–59 years of age in 1980 (baseline). Exclusion criteria were ≥10 non-responses to dietary questions; implausible scores for total food intake; and previous cancer, diabetes, angina, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or other cardiovascular disease.

Assessment of risk factors

Nurses completed postal questionnaires that collected information on age, height and weight, current and past smoking, parental history of MI, menopausal status including the use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, diagnosis of hypertension and high cholesterol concentrations, physical activity, and dietary intake. Follow up questionnaires were completed every 2 years. Low risk was defined as not currently smoking, a body mass index …

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