Evid Based Nurs 4:16 doi:10.1136/ebn.4.1.16
  • Treatment

Self hypnotic relaxation combined with structured attention reduced the discomfort of invasive medical procedures

 QUESTION: Do self hypnotic relaxation and structured attention reduce discomfort and adverse effects in patients having percutaneous vascular and renal radiological procedures?


Randomised {allocation concealed}*, unblinded, controlled trial.


An interventional radiology division of a university medical centre in the US.


241 patients who were 18–92 years of age (median age 56 y, 53% women) and were referred for percutaneous transcatheter diagnostic and therapeutic peripheral vascular and renal interventions. Exclusion criteria included severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychosis, intolerance of midazolam or fentanyl, and pregnancy. Follow up was complete.


Patients were allocated to self hypnotic relaxation plus structured attention (n=82), structured attention alone (n=80), or standard treatment of intravenous conscious sedation (n=79). A manual was used to standardise treatment in each group. In the structured attention group and the self hypnosis group, an additional provider sat close to the patient's head and implemented structured attentive behaviour (8 key components). In the self …

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