Adjusted analysis1: when groups differ on baseline characteristics (eg, age), analyses of outcome data are statistically modified to account for these differences.
Blinding (masking): in an experimental study, refers to whether patients, clinicians providing an intervention, and people assessing outcomes are aware of the group to which patients have been assigned. If the patients, clinicians, and outcome assessors are all unaware of patient group assignment, a study is called “triple blind”; if 2 of the parties are blinded, a study is called ”double blind”; and if only 1 of the parties is blinded, the study is called ”single blind”. If all parties are aware of group assignment, the study is considered to be “unblinded.”
Concealed randomisation: in a randomised controlled trial, the process whereby patients and researchers have no foreknowledge of, and therefore no control over, the group to which a patient may be allocated. When randomisation is concealed (eg, patient allocation by an off site or central registry), it is not possible for the patient or researcher to change the group assignment. However, if randomisation is not concealed (eg, patient assignments are in unsealed, transparent envelopes), either the patient or researcher could, potentially, decide to select another envelope if the desired allocation is not obtained.
Consensus dialogue2: multiple concepts are analysed simultaneously, …