Evid Based Nurs 2:88 doi:10.1136/ebn.2.3.88
  • Causation

Frequent nut consumption reduced the risk of coronary heart disease in women

 Question Is nut consumption associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in women?


Cohort study of women in the Nurses' Health Study with follow up of 14 years.




86 016 women aged 34–59 years who were registered nurses. Exclusion criteria were previously diagnosed cancer, angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, or other cardiovascular diseases; or implausibly high or low scores for total energy intake. Follow up was 98%.

Assessment of risk factors

Frequency of nut consumption and total energy intake (self reported using dietary questionnaires); smoking; age; body mass index; alcohol; use of menopausal hormones, multivitamins, vitamin E, and aspirin; and exercise.

Main outcome measures

Fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, or other fatal CHD verified by electrocardiogram or cardiac enzymes.

Main results

1255 major CHD events occurred during 14 years …

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