Bladder training plus pelvic muscle exercises reduced urinary incontinence in women immediately after treatment
Question What is the comparative effectiveness of different behavioural interventions in reducing urinary incontinence in women?
Randomised trial with 3 months follow up.
Gynaecological practices at 2 academic health science centres in southeastern USA.
204 women ≥45 years of age (mean age 61 y, 92% white) who were living in the community, ambulatory, mentally competent, and able to toilet independently; had urine loss ≥once/week; and had urodynamic evidence of genuine stress incontinence, detrusor instability, or both. Exclusion criteria were reversible causes of urinary incontinence, uncontrolled metabolic conditions, residual urine volume after voiding >100 ml, urinary tract infection, genitourinary fistula or indwelling catheter, or inability to contract a pelvic muscle. Follow up was 95%.