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Exercise plus diet improved cholesterol concentrations in high risk adults

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 Question Can diet (National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] recommended diet), exercise, or both improve the lipid profiles of men and women with low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and high concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol?

Design

Randomised controlled trial with 12 months follow up (Diet and Exercise for Elevated Risk trial).

Setting

A community based study in California, USA.

Patients

180 postmenopausal women and 197 men. Women were 45–64 years old, had HDL cholesterol concentrations <1.55 mmol/l (60 mg/dl), and LDL cholesterol concentrations from >3.23–5.42 mmol/l (>125–209 mg/dl). Men were 30–64 years old, had HDL cholesterol concentrations <1.14 mmol/l (45 mg/dl), and LDL cholesterol concentrations >3.23–4.90 mmol/l (>125–189 mg/dl). Exclusion criteria were history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or other severe illness; treatment with insulin, cardiac medications, or cholesterol or blood pressure lowering drugs; smoking; high alcohol consumption; high blood glucose or triglyceride concentrations; or high body mass index. Follow up was 97%.

Intervention

Participants were allocated to diet alone (47 …

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