Calcium reduced PMS symptoms during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle
Question Can calcium supplementation reduce the symptoms that occur during the luteal and menstrual phases of the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?
Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.
12 outpatient health centres in the US.
497 healthy, premenopausal women aged 18–45 years (mean age 33 y, 80% white) who had regular menstrual cycles, a history of cyclically recurring PMS, PMS symptoms of at least moderate severity confirmed by a validated PMS diary for ≥2 menstrual cycles, and ≥1 of the following: mood swings, depression, tension, anxiety, anger, or crying spells. Exclusion criteria were use of analgesics, digitalis, bile acid resin binders, or levonorgestrel; chronic or excessive use of calcium based antacids or calcium supplements; renal disease or colic; hypoparathyroidism or primary hyperparathyroidism; gastrointestinal or hepatic disease; inflammatory bowel disease or malabsorption; mental illness; gynaecological abnormality; pregnancy or breast feeding; unwillingness to use contraception; or contraceptive use …