Evid Based Nurs 12:120 doi:10.1136/ebn.12.4.120
  • Causation

A combination of 4 health behaviours was associated with increasing risk of stroke


Does the combined effect of 4 health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol use, and fruit and vegetable intake) affect the risk of stroke in community-dwelling people?



cohort study with a mean 11.5-year follow-up (Norfolk component of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer [EPIC-Norfolk]).


general practices in the UK.


20 040 people who were 40–79 years of age (mean age 58 y, 55% women) with no known myocardial infarction or stroke.

Risk factors:

smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable intake. Participants were assigned 1 point each for being a non-smoker, being physically active, consuming alcohol moderately (1–14 units/wk), and consuming ⩾5 servings of vegetables and fruit per day (blood concentration of vitamin C ⩾50 μmol/l).


incident stroke (hospital record linkage and death certificate data). Results were adjusted …

No Related Web Pages

Free Sample

This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of EBN.
View free sample issue >>

EBN Journal Chat

The EBN Journal Chat offers readers the opportunity to participate in discussion about research articles and commentaries from Evidence Based Nursing (EBN).

How to participate >>

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

Navigate This Article