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J M Holroyd-Leduc
Dr J M Holroyd-Leduc, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; email@example.com
How accurate are simple clinical procedures and tests for diagnosing urinary incontinence (UI) in adults?
Studies selected evaluated clinical diagnosis of stress or urge UI in adults and used a reference standard of diagnosis by an expert (urologist or urogynaecologist) and/or urodynamic studies in all patients. Outcomes were summary positive (+LR) and negative (−LR) likelihood ratios.
Medline and EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (to Jul 2007), and reference lists were searched for cohort and case–control studies published in English. 40 studies (age range 16–98 y, >99% women) met the selection criteria.
Simple questions such as “Do you lose urine during sudden physical exertion, lifting, coughing, or sneezing?” and “Do you experience such a strong and sudden urge to void that you leak before …
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