Evid Based Nurs 11:106 doi:10.1136/ebn.11.4.106
  • Treatment

A needle-free powder lignocaine delivery system reduced the pain of venipuncture in children

W T Zempsky

Dr W T Zempsky, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA;


Does a needle-free powder lignocaine (lidocaine) delivery system reduce the pain of venipuncture in children?



randomised, placebo controlled trial.


unclear allocation concealment.


blinded (patients, parents, clinicians, and outcome assessors).

Follow-up period:

4 days.


children’s hospital in Hartford, Connecticut, USA.


306 children 3–18 years of age who were having venipuncture at the back of the hand and had sufficient cognitive function to complete pain assessments. Patients were stratified by age group: 3–7 years (n = 102, 56% boys), 8–12 years (n = 103, 54% boys), and 13–18 years (n = 101, 53% boys). Exclusion criteria included known allergy to local anaesthetics or skin injury on the back of the hand.


needle-free powder lignocaine delivery system (the device was pressed firmly against the back …

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