Evid Based Nurs 11:90 doi:10.1136/ebn.11.3.90
  • Causation

Review: use of cannabis is associated with increased risk of psychotic outcomes later in life

S Zammit

Dr S Zammit, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK;


What is the relation between use of cannabis and psychotic or affective mental health outcomes?


Studies selected evaluated the association between use of cannabis and risk of psychosis or affective mental health outcomes. Studies of patients with known mental illness or substance use related problems, prison inmates, and randomised controlled trials of medicinal use of cannabis were excluded. Outcomes were psychotic (including schizophrenia, schizophreniform, schizoaffective, or psychotic disorders; non-affective or affective psychoses; delusions; hallucinations; or thought disorders) or affective (including affective, mood, or bipolar disorders; depression, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts; anxiety; neurosis; or mania) mental health outcomes.


Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, …

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