Evid Based Nurs 11:25 doi:10.1136/ebn.11.1.25
  • Quality improvement

Cleaning of the perineal/genital area before urine collection from toilet-trained children prevented sample contamination

S Vaillancourt

Correspondence to: Dr S Vaillancourt, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada;


When collecting a midstream urine sample from toilet-trained children, does cleaning of the perineal/genital area before collection prevent sample contamination?



cluster randomised (by week) controlled trial.


not concealed.


blinded (microbiologists).

Follow-up period:

48 hours.


emergency department of a tertiary care paediatric centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.


350 toilet-trained children 2–18 years of age (45% 2–5 y, 37% 6–12 y, and 18% 13–18 y; 60% girls) who had a midstream urine sample requested for any medical reason. Children with developmental delay were excluded.


cleaning of the perineal/genital area twice, using liquid soap and gauze pads (n = 179) or no cleaning (n = 171) before collecting a midstream urine sample in a sterile container. Only samples with a positive urinalysis result were sent to the microbiology …

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