Evid Based Nurs 10:120 doi:10.1136/ebn.10.4.120
  • Causation

Review: soft drink consumption is associated with increased energy intake and body weight

Associations between soft drink consumption and various outcomes*

Outcomes Number and type of studies Mean effect size (p value)
*Effect sizes ⩽0.10 were considered to be small, 0.25 to be medium, and ⩾0.40 to be large.
†Information provided by author.
Energy intake 5 longitudinal studies 0.24 (p<0.001)
4 long-term randomised controlled trials (consumption over 3–10 wks) 0.30 (p<0.001)
12 short-term randomised controlled trials (consumption over a meal or single day) 0.21 (p = 0.004)
Body weight {10}† longitudinal studies 0.09 (p<0.001)
7 randomised controlled trials 0.24 (p<0.001)
Milk intake 5 longitudinal studies −0.21 (p<0.001)
Calcium intake 5 longitudinal studies −0.13 (p = 0.004)

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