Evid Based Nurs 10:60 doi:10.1136/ebn.10.2.60
  • Causation

The combination of smoking and heavy drinking increased the risk of chronic kidney disease

 Q Do smoking and drinking alcohol increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle aged and elderly people?



prospective cohort study with 5 year follow up.


population based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, USA.


3392 men and women 43–86 years of age (mean age 62 y) who participated in the baseline and 5 year examinations and had serum creatinine measurements taken at both time points. People with CKD at baseline were excluded.

GraphicRisk factors:

cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption (⩾4 alcoholic drinks/d) at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, education, body mass index, current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hypertension status, diabetes status, and history of cardiovascular disease.


CKD (glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Glomerular filtration …

No Related Web Pages

Free Sample

This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of EBN.
View free sample issue >>

EBN Journal Chat

The EBN Journal Chat offers readers the opportunity to participate in discussion about research articles and commentaries from Evidence Based Nursing (EBN).

How to participate >>

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

Navigate This Article