Evid Based Nurs 10:60 doi:10.1136/ebn.10.2.60
  • Causation

The combination of smoking and heavy drinking increased the risk of chronic kidney disease

 Q Do smoking and drinking alcohol increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle aged and elderly people?



prospective cohort study with 5 year follow up.


population based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, USA.


3392 men and women 43–86 years of age (mean age 62 y) who participated in the baseline and 5 year examinations and had serum creatinine measurements taken at both time points. People with CKD at baseline were excluded.

GraphicRisk factors:

cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption (⩾4 alcoholic drinks/d) at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, education, body mass index, current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hypertension status, diabetes status, and history of cardiovascular disease.


CKD (glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Glomerular filtration …

Free Sample

This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of EBN.
View free sample issue >>

EBN Journal Chat

The EBN Journal Chat offers readers the opportunity to participate in discussion about research articles and commentaries from Evidence Based Nursing (EBN).

How to participate >>

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

Navigate This Article