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Evid Based Nurs 10:60 doi:10.1136/ebn.10.2.60
  • Causation

The combination of smoking and heavy drinking increased the risk of chronic kidney disease


 
 Q Do smoking and drinking alcohol increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle aged and elderly people?

METHODS

GraphicDesign:

prospective cohort study with 5 year follow up.

GraphicSetting:

population based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, USA.

GraphicParticipants:

3392 men and women 43–86 years of age (mean age 62 y) who participated in the baseline and 5 year examinations and had serum creatinine measurements taken at both time points. People with CKD at baseline were excluded.

GraphicRisk factors:

cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption (⩾4 alcoholic drinks/d) at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, education, body mass index, current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hypertension status, diabetes status, and history of cardiovascular disease.

GraphicOutcomes:

CKD (glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Glomerular filtration …

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