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prospective cohort study with 5 year follow up.
population based study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, USA.
3392 men and women 43–86 years of age (mean age 62 y) who participated in the baseline and 5 year examinations and had serum creatinine measurements taken at both time points. People with CKD at baseline were excluded.
cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption (⩾4 alcoholic drinks/d) at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, education, body mass index, current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hypertension status, diabetes status, …
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