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Evid Based Nurs 1:124 doi:10.1136/ebn.1.4.124
  • Causation

Review: parental smoking increases risk of recurrent otitis media, middle ear effusion, and tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy in children

Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for recurrent otitis media, middle ear effusion, adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy, and outpatient referral if either parent smoked

Outcome Number of studies Pooled OR 95% CI
*Based on a random effects model. All other ORs based on a fixed effects model.
†Not significant.
Recurrent otitis media 7 (4 cohort, 2 case control, 1 survey) 1.48* 1.08 to 2.04
Middle ear effusion 4 (3 cohort, 1 survey) 1.38 1.23 to 1.55
Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy 4 (2 case control, 2 surveys) 2.07 1.82 to 2.35
Outpatient referral 7 (1 cohort, 6 case control) 1.21† 0.95 to 1.53

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