|Outcome||Number of studies||Pooled OR||95% CI|
|*Based on a random effects model. All other ORs based on a fixed effects model.|
|Recurrent otitis media||7 (4 cohort, 2 case control, 1 survey)||1.48*||1.08 to 2.04|
|Middle ear effusion||4 (3 cohort, 1 survey)||1.38||1.23 to 1.55|
|Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy||4 (2 case control, 2 surveys)||2.07||1.82 to 2.35|
|Outpatient referral||7 (1 cohort, 6 case control)||1.21†||0.95 to 1.53|
Review: parental smoking increases risk of recurrent otitis media, middle ear effusion, and tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy in children
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