Evid Based Nurs 1:123 doi:10.1136/ebn.1.4.123
  • Causation

Higher maternal age at birth was associated with increased self sufficiency of children at age 27 to 33 years

 Question Is the age of inner city mothers a determinant of their children's self sufficiency at age 27–33 years?


Cohort study with follow up of >30 years (Pathways to Adulthood Study and the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study).


Inner city of Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


1758 adults (82% black, 54% women) who were born from 1960–5 and were assessed at birth, 7 or 8 years later, and in 1994. 1552 mothers of the participants were also included.

Assessment of risk factors

Maternal age at first birth (<20 y, 20–24 y, and ≥25 y), parity, race, sex of the child, maternal education, poverty status at birth including financial independence of public support, marital and employment status, week of pregnancy when prenatal care was started, gestational age at birth, and birth weight.

Main outcome measures

Outcomes for children included educational attainment of at least a high school diploma; financial independence (absence of family support from public sources …

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