Calcium and vitamin D reduced non-vertebral fractures and bone loss in the elderly
To assess the effectiveness of combined oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation in reducing non-vertebral fractures and bone loss in elderly people living in the community.
3 year randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.
Community based study in the USA.
445 healthy people living in the community who were ≥65 years of age (55% women) were enrolled and 389 (mean age 71 y) were included in the intention to treat analysis. Exclusion criteria were current cancer or hyperparathyroidism; a kidney stone in the past 5 years; renal disease; bilateral hip surgery; bisphosphonate, calcitonin, oestrogen, tamoxifen, or testosterone use in the past 6 months; fluoride use in the past 2 years; low femoral neck bone mineral density; dietary calcium intake exceeding 1500 mg per day; and laboratory evidence of …