Evid Based Nurs 1:23 doi:10.1136/ebn.1.1.23
  • Causation

Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes among postmenopausal women


To evaluate the association between physical activity and all cause mortality in postmenopausal women.


7 year cohort analytic study.


Iowa, USA.


99 826 women were initially selected for the study and 40 417 (40.5%) adequately completed the questionnaire. All were postmenopausal women 55–69 years of age at baseline. 99% were white or of European descent.

Assessment of risk factors

Levels of physical activity were assessed by a mailed questionnaire at baseline. The questionnaire also assessed smoking, dietary habits, alcohol use, personal medical history, weight, and body circumference.

Main outcome measure

All cause mortality.

Main results

2284 women died during follow up. Results were adjusted for age at baseline, menarche, menopause, and first live birth; parity; alcohol intake; total energy intake; cigarette smoking; oestrogen use; body mass index at baseline; body mass …

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