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Evid Based Nurs 1:22 doi:10.1136/ebn.1.1.22
  • Causation

Postmenopausal hormone use was associated with decreased total mortality

Objective

To determine whether use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with total mortality.

Design

A nested case control study of participants in the Nurses' Health Study.

Setting

Community based study in the USA.

Participants

121 700 nurses (all women), who were aged 30–55 years at baseline, completed questionnaires in 1976 and every 2 years until 1994. Women were included in this analysis if they reported being postmenopausal. Exclusion criteria were reported cardiovascular disease or cancer before menopause. 3637 women died during follow up and were considered to be the case patients. All but 50 women who died were matched with 10 control women who were alive either at the date of the case patient's death or diagnosis of the fatal illness (n=34 625).

Assessment of risk factors

HRT use was taken from questionnaires and was classified into current use, past use, and never used. Questionnaires also provided data on risk factors used …

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