Evid Based Nurs 1:22 doi:10.1136/ebn.1.1.22
  • Causation

Postmenopausal hormone use was associated with decreased total mortality


To determine whether use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with total mortality.


A nested case control study of participants in the Nurses' Health Study.


Community based study in the USA.


121 700 nurses (all women), who were aged 30–55 years at baseline, completed questionnaires in 1976 and every 2 years until 1994. Women were included in this analysis if they reported being postmenopausal. Exclusion criteria were reported cardiovascular disease or cancer before menopause. 3637 women died during follow up and were considered to be the case patients. All but 50 women who died were matched with 10 control women who were alive either at the date of the case patient's death or diagnosis of the fatal illness (n=34 625).

Assessment of risk factors

HRT use was taken from questionnaires and was classified into current use, past use, and never used. Questionnaires also provided data on risk factors used …

Free Sample

This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of EBN.
View free sample issue >>

EBN Journal Chat

The EBN Journal Chat offers readers the opportunity to participate in discussion about research articles and commentaries from Evidence Based Nursing (EBN).

How to participate >>

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

Navigate This Article